HANRAHAN, FRANCIS, policeman; b. 21 Dec. 1870 in Fergusons Cove, N.S., son of Captain James Hanrahan, a pilot, and Mary Jane Smith; m. there 14 Sept. 1892 Mary Anne Hayes, and they had seven sons and four daughters who survived him; d. 30 March 1926 in Halifax.
Of Irish-Scottish parentage, Frank Hanrahan dedicated much of his life to the Halifax Police Department. In 1892, at the age of 20, he joined the force as a patrolman. He had previously worked as a fisherman in Halifax County but his marriage had no doubt caused him to seek a more stable form of employment. Hanrahan gradually rose through the hierarchy of the department. In 1906 he was promoted to the rank of detective and in 1907 he became deputy chief of police. After less than two years the department transferred him back to the detective branch, where he served as chief detective until 1917. That year he returned to the post of deputy chief and then in 1918 city council appointed him chief of police.
In his 32 years with the department, Hanrahan gained notoriety for his ability to solve crimes. The Halifax Herald claimed that his detective work “made his name known over the North American continent.” On two occasions he worked closely with law enforcement officials in the United States and overseas to apprehend embezzlers, travelling to Colorado in 1909 and England in 1910 to escort suspects back to Halifax. His collaboration with Scotland Yard in the latter case bolstered his image at home to the point where he was regarded as among the “finest officials” in the city.
During his career Hanrahan oversaw 12 murder investigations, including that into the slaying of lawyer James Robinson Johnston*. Each resulted in the capture of the perpetrators and their subsequent convictions. Perhaps the most celebrated case involved the murder of Maud Delaney in August 1919. The police found her battered body lying in bed with her two-year-old son beside her. Hanrahan launched a province-wide search for her husband, John, the prime suspect, to stand trial for what the Herald called “one of the most brutal murders that has ever been committed in Nova Scotia.” He eventually discovered Delaney hiding in a home in the city’s south end. As chief, Hanrahan was actively involved in his department’s ongoing efforts to maintain law and order in Halifax.
Hanrahan was deemed by many of his peers to be “one of [the] Best Chiefs We Have Had.” His officers considered him a “strict disciplinarian” but fair, attributes that earned him the respect of most members of the department. Indeed, they greeted his resignation with regret. However, Hanrahan’s tenure as chief was not without problems. Most Halifax police officers in the early part of the 20th century received inadequate training and pay. Although the chief outlined to all new recruits their responsibilities before sending them out on patrol, critics, including some patrolmen, argued that officers were ill-equipped to meet the challenges they faced. Similarly, patrolmen’s wages did not match the professional stature sought by the department. In 1918 they earned between $750 and $850 per year depending on seniority. Next to their superior officers and some skilled workers, such as carpenters, they were underpaid, a fact that solidified their position as members of Halifax’s working class.
Officers’ low pay forced some to quit. In 1924, the year of Hanrahan’s resignation, four men left to join the Canadian National Railways police. Hanrahan had lobbied the city council in 1918 for a substantial pay increase to attract “a class of men worthy of the city, fit for the duties of law enforcement and capable of coping with growing responsibilities,” but with little success. As a result, morale on the force had plummeted. It was reported in 1924 that discontent over the city’s “cutting” policy, designed to reduce the size of the force (and effectively ending some patrolmen’s chances for promotion), permeated the rank and file.
Moreover, while Hanrahan was chief, the department, once “the pride of the Dominion,” seemed to be in a state of disarray. Revelations to this effect emerged shortly after he stepped down in May. “All is not well with the police force in Halifax,” cried the Halifax Evening Mail. While the paper did not impugn Hanrahan’s integrity, or his career, it questioned “whether he has possessed the executive ability so necessary to the successful sustaining of the office of chief of police.”
As Mayor John Murphy declared soon after Hanrahan had submitted his resignation, “I doubt if any department is in need of more careful study at the present time than the police.” “There seems to be an impression,” he continued, “that certain factions exist in the force and that this fact coupled with petty jealousies is tending to keep its efficiency below standard.” Although not a direct criticism of Hanrahan, Murphy’s words, combined with his call to reassess the department, cast doubt upon Hanrahan’s abilities.
In one sense Murphy’s observations were accurate. Hanrahan did not have an affinity for managerial duties. Instead, he concentrated on investigating crimes and overseeing the maintenance of law and order. Under his successors, the office of chief of police underwent a transformation, becoming more bureaucratized and more a public relations medium for the department than an agency representing the members of the force. This and other developments after 1924, such as the introduction of new technology, notably fingerprinting, led to the modernization and professionalization of the department.
When Hanrahan resigned he offered no reason for his decision, nor did he announce any immediate plans for his retirement. Although rumours began to circulate that he was to become “actively connected” with the soon-to-be established provincial police force, he never had the opportunity. In March 1926 he contracted influenza and bronchitis and died within a day. In addition to his 11 children, he was survived by 8 brothers and 3 sisters; his wife had predeceased him about 1915. Hanrahan’s sudden death left many saddened at the loss of a “veteran” of the Halifax Police Department and a central figure in the city’s efforts to preserve law and order.
NSARM, Churches, St Paul's Roman Catholic (Herring Cove), reg. of baptisms (mfm.); RG 32, M, Halifax County, no.362/1892.
Acadian Recorder (Halifax), 31 March 1926.
Evening Echo (Halifax), 28, 30 April 1924.
Evening Mail (Halifax), 29 April 1924.
Halifax Herald, 9 Jan. 1918; 16 Aug., 15 Oct. 1919; 29 April, 9 May 1924; 31 March 1926; 16 Jan. 1935.
Morning Chronicle (Halifax), 2 May 1924, 31 March 1926.
Michael Boudreau, “Crime and society in a city of order: Halifax, 1918–1935” (phd thesis, Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ont., 1996).
Halifax, City Council, Annual report of the several departments of the civic government of Halifax, Nova Scotia (Halifax), 1917/18, annual report of the chief of police.
Peter McGahan, “Halifax Police Department, 1919–1924,” Atlantic Institute of Criminology, Report (Halifax), no.14 (1989).
Greg Marquis, Policing Canada's century: a history of the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police (Toronto, 1993); “Working men in uniform: the early twentieth-century Toronto Police,” Social Hist. (Ottawa), 20 (1987): 259–77